Table 1.

Recognized biomarkers, symptoms, and methods for detection

Preclinical biomarkersProdromal symptomsTechniques for measuring markers or symptoms
AutismNone identifiedDecreased social engagement and eye focus (Jones and Klin, 2013)Eye tracking (Klin et al., 2002), naturalistic observation (Baranek, 1999), structural brain scan (Hazlett et al., 2017)
SchizophreniaNone identifiedSubclinical positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms (Goulding et al., 2013)Clinical interview (Goulding et al., 2013), genomic analysis (Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 2014)
Alzheimer’sLow CSF Aβ1-42 with high CSF P-τ or T-τ, increased amyloid PET retention, autosomal dominant mutation (e.g., APP, PSEN1/2; Jack et al., 2011; Dubois et al., 2014, 2016)Mild cognitive impairmentPET scan with injectable tracer, lumbar puncture, memory assessment (e.g., FCSRT; Dubois et al., 2016)
  • Alzheimer’s is the only disease of those discussed with recognized preclinical markers. Adapted from Arias et al. (2018). CSF: cerebrospinal fluid, PET: positron emission tomography, FCSRT: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, APP: amyloid protein precursor, PSEN: presenilin.