Table 1.

Whole-brain results of VBM during the experimental tasks: loop closure, distance tracking, and angle tracking

ContrastBrain regionLeftRight
ktMNI x,y,zktMNI x,y,z
    Correlation with better performancevmPFC/gyrus rectus3356.11*–2,14,–203353.533,14,–18
Medial prefrontal cortex11274.3512,54,9
Cingulate (anterior)11274.29–8,32,–83.853,42,–3
Sylvian fissure3705.15–42,–12,–12
Retrosplenial cortex3733.77–6,–54,20
Lateral occipital gyrus5255.19*–21,–96,–9
    Correlation with worse performanceCerebellum lobule III6694.47–3,–56,–106693.272,–45,–12
Cerebellum lobule IV3.58–6,–47,–64.88*2,–47,–6
Cerebellum lobule IX9735.63*20,–38,–50
Cerebellum lobule VIIB3.7135,–42,–48
    Correlation with better performance
    Correlation with worse performance
    Correlation with better performanceCerebellum lobule IX17823.888,–62,–36
Cerebellum lobule VIIIB4.3920,–62,–45
Cerebellum crus I7374.01–41,–42,–393.7718,–83,–20
Cerebellum crus II3.3212,–70,–38
    Correlation with worse performancevmPFC/gyrus rectus5363.535,27,–23
Orbitofrontal cortex4.2912,48,–20
Inferior frontal gyrus17493.7744,24,–6
Sylvian fissure6305.90–42,6,43.9942,8,11
Superior temporal gyrus3.9648,4,–4
Insula (anterior)4.19–38,18,23.2232,26,–2
Intraparietal sulcus13195.59*–21,–81,29
Parietal-occipital sulcus4.80–18,–74,38
  • Correlations of local gray matter volumes with good and poor performance are listed for all tasks, with the size of the cluster (k), and t value and MNI coordinate of the peak voxel. These values reflect a voxel-wise statistical threshold of p < 0.01 corrected to family-wise p < 0.05 with a minimum cluster threshold of 333 voxels.

  • * Result holds at the voxel-wise p < 0.001 level (family-wise p < 0.05, minimum cluster threshold of 120 voxels).