Table 1.

Laboratory tests for the biomarkers reviewed in this article that are available in hospital laboratories.

BiomarkerSampleMethodNormal rangeRange in TBI
S100βSerumIC<0.11 µg/l>0.11 µg/la
NSESerumImmunodetection based on ECLFrom <17 to <25 µg/l, depending on age>20 µg/la
CSFImmunodetection based on ECL<15 µg/l54.80 ± 43.34 µg/lb
P-tauCSFELISA<70 pg/mlN/A
TauCSFELISA<400 pg/ml1684–8691 pg/mlc
Aβ-42CSFELISA>500 pg/ml<230 pg/mld
<350 pg/mle
IL-6PlasmaIC<5.9 ng/lN/A
IL-8PlasmaIC<62 ng/lN/A
TNF-αSerumIC<8.1 ng/lN/A
  • The assays shown in the table respond to the head injuries and to the conditions of the central nervous system, but only S100β has TBI as the main indication. The data were collected from the laboratory manuals of large hospitals in September 2016. IC, immunochemiluminescence; ECL, electrochemiluminescence; Aβ-42, amyloid-beta-42 protein. aReference values defined in clinical laboratories. bBrandner et al. (2013). cMagnoni et al.(2012). dFranz et al. (2003). eMondello et al.(2014).