Table 2.

Statistical tests performed for behavioral observations and EMG recordings

FigureDescriptionData structureType of testp value
A3AComparison between stimulations at cold (4°C), cool (21°C) neutral (25°C), hot (34°C)Paired, non-parametricKruskal–Wallis ANOVA<0.0001
Cold vs coolDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cool vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Cool vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Neutral vs hotDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
B3BComparison between cold stimulations (4°C), cold -5N, and cold -obexPaired, non-parametricKruskal–Wallis ANOVA0.0411
Cold vs cold -5NDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test< 0.05.
Cold -5N vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
C4AComparison between stimulations at cold (4°C), neutral (22°C), hot (45°C), and cold -obexPaired, non-parametricFriedman ANOVA<0.0001
Cold vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Cold vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Cold vs cold -obex Dunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs hotDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.05
Hot vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
DN/AComparison between responses in Figures 3, 4A when different temperatures are usedNon-parametric
Neutral 22°C vs neutral 25°CKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.2644
Hot 34°C vs 45°CKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.0495
-obex with bath at 25°C vs 22°CKolmogorov–Smirnov t test<0.01
EN/AComparison of response rates to cold (4°C) and neutral (22°C) following anesthesia by hypothermia or isofluraneNon-parametric
Cold hypothermia vs isofluraneKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.3077
Neutral hypothermia vs isofluraneKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.3874
F4BComparison between stimulations at cold (4°C), neutral (22°C), hot (45°C), cold -skin, neutral -skin, hot -skin, and cold -obexPaired, non-parametricFriedman ANOVA<0.0001
Cold vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Cold vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Cold vs cold -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold vs neutral -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs hot -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Neutral vs hotDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs cold -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.05
Neutral vs neutral -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs hot -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot vs cold -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.05
Hot vs neutral -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot vs hot -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold -skin vs neutral -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold -skin vs hot -skinDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Cold -skin vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Neutral -skin vs hot -skinDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral -skin vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot -skin vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold vs cold-skinWilcoxon t test0.25
Cold vs cold -obexWilcoxon t test0.0010
Hot vs hot -skinWilcoxon t test0.0898
Neutral vs neutral -skinWilcoxon t test0.0078
Cold -skin vs cold-obexWilcoxon t test0.0015
G6AEMG amplitudes for cold (4°C), neutral (22°C), hot (45°C) cold -5N, neutral -5N, hot -5N, and cold -obexUnpaired, non-parametricKruskal–Wallis ANOVA<0.0001
Cold vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs cold -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs neutral -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs hot-5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Neutral vs hotDunn’s post hoc testn.s
Neutral vs cold -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Neutral vs neutral -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Neutral vs hot -5NDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot vs cold -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Hot vs neutral -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.01
Hot vs hot -5NDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Hot vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Cold -5N vs neutral -5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold -5N vs hot-5NDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold -5N vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.001
Neutral -5N vs hot -5NDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
Neutral -5N vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc test<0.05
Hot -5N vs cold -obexDunn’s post hoc testn.s.
H6BEMG amplitudes comparisons for cold (4°C), neutral (22°C), hot (45°C) when all responses are considered and when only responses >0 are considered
Cold vs cold >0Kolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.9998
Neutral vs neutral >0Kolmogorov–Smirnov t test<0.0001
Hot vs hot >0Kolmogorov–Smirnov t test<0.0001.
I7Comparisons of latencies for cold (4°C), neutral (22°C), and hot (45°C)Unpaired, non-parametricKruskal–Wallis ANOVA<0.0001
Cold vs neutralDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Cold vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
Neutral vs hotDunn’s post hoc test<0.0001
JN/AComparison of amplitudes after cold (4°C) stimulations for right and left FLUnpaired, non-parametricKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.1726
KN/AComparison of latencies after cold (4°C) stimulations for right and left FLUnpaired, non-parametricKolmogorov–Smirnov t test0.6001
  • -5N, trigeminal transection; -obex, complete transection of the spinoencephalic junction, caudal to the obex; -skin, facial skin removal; N/A, non-applicable; n.s., not significant.