Table 1

Results of behavioral tests for VTASst+ and VTASst− mice

Behavioral testsfor VTASst+ and VTASst−mice
Name of testEnvironmentGroup sizeAffected?Statistical significance
♂ Control♂ Caspase♁ Control♁ Caspase
Running wheelHome cage9685No
Open fieldOpen arena109118No
Light/dark boxTest system109118No
Elevated plus mazeTest system109118No
Novelty suppresed
feeding
Open arena109118NoTendency to sex-treatment interaction; caspase males start eating faster than controls and caspase females later than controls.
Sucrose preferenceHome cage109117No 
Morphine-induced
locomotor sensitization
Open arena107118YesExpression of morphine sensitization; caspase mice display stronger moprhine-induced locomotor sensitization.
Forced-swim testTest system109118YesCaspase animals struggle longer than controls.
Saccharine preferenceIntelliCage7775No 
Home cage activity
in group
IntelliCage7775YesFemales are more active in nose poking to water-containing doors than males; caspase females are more active than control females.
Delay discountingIntelliCage7775No*Strong sex interaction; females are ready to wait longer for the saccharine than males.
Reward-related learningIntelliCage7775No
Reward-related unlearningIntelliCage7775No
Reward-related unlearning
with punishment
IntelliCage7775No
Reward-related relearningIntelliCage7775No
Fear Conditioning (FC)Test system6755YesSex-treatment interaction; caspase males freeze less, and caspase females freeze more than controls.
FC context testTest system6755YesSex-treatment interaction; caspase males freeze less, and caspase females freeze more than controls.
FC cue testTest system6755No
  • Boldface indicates significantly affected behaviors due to VTASst neurons deletion to simplify their identification. Asterisk indicates no difference due to VTASst neurons deletion, but strong difference between sexes in the test performance.