Table 4

Summary of DNA methylation patterns and differential gene expression levels

MarkerSample retrievedAnxiety modelReference
Dnmt1Hippocampus (CA1, CA3)
Amygdala (medial, basolateral and lateral nucleus)
bLR animals (rats: P7 to P14)Simmons et al., 2012
Dnmt3aPeripheral bloodAnxious young adults (measured with HADS-A)Murphy et al., 2015
mPFCAdult CSDS (9 weeks) mice (killed 4 weeks after CSDS)Elliott et al., 2016
HippocampusLow-methyl diet adult mice (6 and 12 weeks) (low anxiety)Ishii et al., 2014
NR3C11F (Me)Peripheral whole bloodAdolescents (mean age = 16 years) who reported SLE'svan der Knaap et al., 2014
NR3C11F (Me)Leukocytic bloodAdults (age range = 18–65 years) who reported SLEs and diagnosed with variable ADsTyrka et al., 2016
NR3C1 (Me)
PBMCsAdults (mean age = 35 years) diagnosed with GADWang et al., 2017
↓GR ↑FKBP5PlacentaNR3C1+/− miceSchmidt et al., 2019
FKBP5AmygdalaAdult rats (25 weeks) born to dams exposed to predator odors (prenatal/in utero stress)St-Cyr et al., 2017
Amygdala (basolateral)Viral overexpression of FKBP51Hartmann et al., 2015
Whole brainH67D male mutant mice (low anxiety)Ye et al., 2018
Dnmt1GAD67Amygdala (basolateral)Female mice (P45) exposed to BPA in uteroZhou et al., 2013
Female mice (P60/P70) exposed prenatally/in utero to maternal restraint stressZhu et al., 2018
CrfDnmt3bHypothalamus (PVN)Adult CSDS miceElliott et al., 2010
Crf ↑CortisolHypothalamusPRS adolescent rats (P38) born to dams subjected to restraint stressXu et al., 2014
Hypothalamus (PVN)Male adult (P90) rats exposed in utero to gestational hypoxiaWang et al., 2013
↓CRHR1 (Me)Peripheral whole bloodAdults (mean age = 35 years) diagnosed with panic disorderSchartner et al., 2017
Crhr1Amygdala (basolateral)HAB mice bred for a high anxiety trait, LAB mice exposed to CMSSotnikov et al., 2014
Amygdala (central)Anxious temperament rhesus macaques (mean age = 1.3 years)Alisch et al., 2014
  • Genes are italicized. (me) denotes methylation reported. HADS-A, Hospital anxiety and depression scale; P, postnatal day.