Table 1

Test compounds and exposure concentration ranges used for in vivo electrophysiological recording in 4-dpf elavl3:GCaMP6s zebrafish larvae

Compound namePharmacodynamicsConcentrations usedSeizure liability
AminophyllineAdenosine receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor1, 2, 4 mmVarious cases of seizure in humans, and evidence of kindling in rats (Schwartz and Scott, 1974; Albertson et al., 1983)
ChlorpromazineDopamine, serotonin, histamine, Muscarinic and α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist31.25, 62.5, 125 μmIncreased risk of seizure in patients receiving anti-psychotic drug (APD) treatment, particularly polytherapy; seizure risk 5-fold higher in individuals receiving low/medium potency APDS such as chlorpromazine (Bloechliger et al., 2015; Druschky et al., 2019)
DonepezilAcetylcholinesterase inhibitor125, 62, 31 μmAmong the top 10 drugs most commonly associated with seizures in World Health Organization adverse drug reaction database (Kumlien and Lundberg, 2010)
PicrotoxinGABAA receptor antagonist30, 60, 120 μmCommonly used convulsant compound used for modelling seizures (Mackenzie et al., 2002)
(RS)-(tetrazol-5-yl)glycineNMDA receptor agonist62.5, 125, 250 μmConvulsant compound used for modelling seizures (Schoepp et al., 1991)
SB205607 (TAN-67)δ-Opioid receptor agonist125, 250, 500 μmIncreases incidence of convulsions in bicuculline kindled rats (Yajima et al., 2000)
  • Also shown are published evidence to support seizurogenicity. All compounds were sourced from Sigma-Aldrich or Tocris.