Table 2

Origin of telencephalic subcortical inputs to the glutamatergic nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus

Posterior hypothalamusVent MES
(1, 2, 3,
4, 5)
(6, 7, 8,
9, 10, 11)
(4, 12,
13, 14)
(16, 17,
18, 19)
(15, 16)(20, 21,
22, 23)
(24, 25, 26)(4, 10, 19, 21,
26, 27, 28,
29, 30)
 Dorsal striatum (caudoputamen)+++++
 Ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens,
fundus of striatum, olfactory
 Medial striatum (lateral septal nucleus)+++
 Caudal striatum
(central amygdalar nucleus, capsular
and lateral parts(a))
 Dorsal pallidum (GP)+++++++
 VP (c)+++
+++ anterior+++
 Medial pallidum+++
 Caudal pallidum++++
  • This table was realized based on the following references: (1) Canteras et al. (1990); (2) Graybiel et al. (1994); (3) Parent and Hazrati (1995a); (4) Groenewegen and Berendse (1990); (5) Groenewegen et al. (1993); (6) Barbier et al. (2020); (7) Barbier et al. (2017); (8) Chometton et al. (2016); (9) Dong and Swanson (2003); (10) Grove (1988); (11) Dong et al. (2001); (12) Price et al. (1991); (13) Heimer et al. (1990); (14) Gaykema et al. (1990); (15) Comoli et al. (2000); (16) Dong and Swanson (2004a,b); (17) Cavalcante et al. (2014); (18) Gu et al. (2003); (19) Risold and Swanson (1997); (20) Shibata (1989); (21) Swanson and Cowan (1979); (22) Vann (2010); (23) Vann and Aggleton (2004); (24) Gonzales and Chesselet (1990); (25) Gerfen and Bolam (2016); (26) Tomimoto et al. (1987); (27) Luo et al. (2011); (28) Geisler and Zahm (2005); (29) Kaufling et al. (2009); and (30) Phillipson (1979). Commentaries about the used parcellation: although we have remained very close to the nomenclature used by the Allen Brain Atlas (Allen Institute, 2004), a few adaptations seemed necessary to us. (a) The CEA is one of the striatal-like amygdalar nuclei. However, the original cytoarchitectonic study by McDonald (McDonald, 1982) revealed that only the lateral and central parts of the CEA contain striatal-like medium spiny neurons, while the medial part do not contain such neurons. The medial part of the CEA (CEAm) receives afferences from the lateral CEA as well as from the fundus striatum (belonging to the ventral striatum), which signify that the CEAm is targeted by striatal-like structures. Furthermore, it is intensely, selectively bidirectionally connected to the PSTN adjacent to the STN. Based on these considerations, the CEAm belongs to the pallidum and not to the striatum. This assertion is also compatible with developmental data (Bupesh et al., 2011; Barbier et al., 2020). (b) The MEA is also one of the striatal-like amygdalar nuclei. Without wishing to question this hypothesis, it is necessary to make a comment. Indeed, the MEA is made of a complex collection of neurons. In particular, it contains abundant populations of glutamatergic neurons with a hypothalamic or a pallial origin (Ruiz-Reig et al., 2018). These neurons are abundant in the posteroventral part of the medial amygdalar nucleus (MEApv) which sends dense projections to the PMv (Canteras et al., 1992b). Therefore, a better characterization of the neurochemical nature of the MEA projection to the PMv is necessary to understand the organization of this complex amygdalar nucleus. (c) For practical reason only, we divided the substantia innominata/VP into the three parts: the anterior VP is deep to the olfactory tubercle. The central anterior pallidum corresponds to most of the pallidum as illustrated by Root et al. (2015); the posterior VP corresponds to the posterior substantia innominata excluded from the VP by Root et al. (2015). BSTif: interfascicular part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; BSTpr: principal part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; BSTrh: rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; CbN: calbindin nucleus; CEAm: medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala; MBO: mammillary body; MPO: medial preoptic area; MS: medial septal nucleus; NDB: diagonal band nucleus; NG: nucleus gemini; PMd: dorsal premammillary nucleus; PMv: ventral premammillary nucleus; PSTN: para-STN; Pvfox: Parvafox nucleus; SN: substantia nigra; STN: subthalamic nucleus; VTA: ventral tegmental area.