Table 1

Primary criteria (behaviors that clearly express emotional state) and secondary criteria (behaviors that are associated with emotional state but require contextual information to be interpreted) used in behavioral scoring

Neutral statePositive stateNegative state
Primary criteriaNo overt emotionSmiling + eye contact, laughter/gigglingFussing/crying
Secondary criteriaAdults talkingCooing/babbling, approach (reaching), waving arms/legsPushing away, avoidance (arching, looking away)