Table 1

Sex steroid levels, morphometrics, and cellular changes with induction of inflammation

ShDLDTANOVA main effect(two-way)Injection type(Sham vs LPS)Condition (ShD vs LDT)Injection * Condition
Sham
(n = 5)
LPS
(n = 6)
Sham
(n = 9)
LPS
(n = 9)
Testosterone        
 Plasma levels (ng/ml)0.07 ± 0.03a 0.08 ± 0.02a 15.80 ± 1.69b 17.70 ± 1.65b F(3,20) = 31.8914; p < 0.0001F = 0.2986; p = 0.5908F = 990.7318; p < 0.0001F = 0.2920; p = 0.5949
HVC        
 Unilateralvolume (mm3)0.42 ± 0.05a 0.41 ± 0.04a 0.80 ± 0.05b 0.75 ± 0.06b F(3,24) = 10.6481; p < 0.0001F = 0.3873; p = 0.5396F = 30.5611; p < 0.0001F = 0.2033; p < 0.0001
 Neuron density(×103/mm3)130 ± 5a,b 117 ± 4a 129 ± 3b 128 ± 4b F(3,25) = 6.8570; p = 0.0016F = 1.8998; p = 0.1803F = 16.3837; p = 0.0004F = 1.9168; p = 0.1784
 Unilateral neuronnumber (×103)60 ± 10a 51 ± 5a 111 ± 9b 100 ± 11b F(3,24) = 5.3377; p = 0.0058F = 0.0773; p = 0.7834F = 15.1049; p = 0.0007F = 0.5399; p = 0.4696
 AC-3 cell density(per mm3)1747 ± 2302132 ± 4112696 ± 2412445 ± 271F(3,21) = 2.0696; p = 0.1349F = 0.0432; p = 0.8373F = 4.4773; p = 0.0465F = 1.1176; p = 0.3025
 Unilateral AC-3 cell number829 ± 200a 946 ± 245a 2328 ± 292b 2060 ± 360a,b F(3,21) = 5.9919; p = 0.0041F = 0.1334; p = 0.7186F = 16.1711; p = 0.0006F = 0.4803; p = 0.4803
Microglia in HVC        
 Ramified295 ± 86231 ± 29479 ± 38451 ± 73F(3,18) = 2.6917; p = 0.0770F = 2.1850; p = 0.1566F = 5.4407; p = 0.0315F = 1.0983; p = 0.3085
 Intermediate85 ± 30128 ± 11142 ± 23139 ± 40F(3,18) = 0.5415; p = 0.660F = 0.3760; p = 0.5474F = 1.1190; p = 0.3041F = 0.2635; p = 0.6139
 Reactive32 ± 1243 ± 748 ± 1051 ± 11F(3,18) = 0.4788; p = 0.7010F = 0.4027; p = 0.5337F = 1.0125; p = 0.3276F = 0.0982; p = 0.7576
 Total active129 ± 41156 ± 12190 ± 33190 ± 49F(3,18) = 0.4510; p = 0.7197F = 0.0976; p = 0.7583F = 1.1961; p = 0.2885F = 0.1018; p = 0.7533
 Total all552 ± 108361 ± 41668 ± 57641 ± 93F(3,18) = 2.5088; p = 0.0915F = 1.6603; p = 0.2139F = 5.4621; p = 0.0312F = 0.9271; p = 0.3484
vVZ        
 Unilateral BrdU-positive cel number971 ± 164a 1819 ± 123b 690 ± 113a 1712 ± 106b F(3,22) = 22.0745; p
< 0.0001
F = 54.4770; p < 0.0001F = 2.394; p = 0.1412F = 0.4709; p = 0.4997
Age        
 Minimum age(month)21 ± 219 ± 320 ± 217 ± 2F(3,25) = 0.3227; p = 0.8089F = 0.5843, p = 0.4518F = 0.2273, p = 0.6377F = 0.0493, p = 0.8262
  • All values are the mean ± SEM. Superscript letters denote significant differences across treatment groups with post hoc Tukey’s test, only if the main effect of ANOVA was significant.