Table 1

Criteria used to assign a qualitative developmental score to songs produced by first year male canaries

Developmental score criteriaSong durationSong structure1Syllable structure2Repetition accuracy3
Early subsong, score = 1>0.5 sNoNot clearly discernableNo
Advanced subsong, score = 2>1.0 sNoNot clearly discernableNo
Plastic song, score = 3>0.5 sStructure starts to appearNot clearly discernableNo
Advanced plastic song, score = 4>0.5 sApparent structureSome syllables discernableSome phrases accurately repeated
Crystallized song, score = 5>0.5 sApparent structureAll syllables discernableAll phrases accurately repeated
  • The developmental score is based on the qualitative evaluation of the song structure, syllable utterance, and syllable repetition accuracy compared with an adult male canary during the breeding season.

  • 1 Typical structure of an adult male canary contains different phrases made of syllable repetitions.

  • 2 Similar to spectrogram view from an adult song.

  • 3 Without visible changes in time-frequency contours between successive renditions within the spectrogram.