Brain | 55 dph | Summer | Autumn | Winter (no T) | Winter (+ T) | Spring | Kruskal–WallisH (DF) (η²
)_{H}
| Mann–WhitneyU (η²) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

HVC | ||||||||

PNN density (/mm²) | 34.8 ± 4.7 | 42.8 ± 9.4 | 76.9 ± 10.6^{a}
| 73.8 ± 6.8^{a}
| 58.8 ± 7.7 | 67.2 ± 6.9^{(a)}
| H_{(4)} = 17.28** (0.32) | U = 14 (0.16) |

PV density (/mm²) | 347 ± 28 | 311 ± 8 | 247 ± 23 | 374 ± 21^{c}
| 414 ± 49 | 440 ± 50^{c}
| H_{(4)} = 16.74** (0.31) | U = 13 (0.19) |

PV+PNN density (/mm²) | 20.9 ± 3.4 | 32.6 ± 6.3 | 68.9 ± 10.6^{a}
| 63.0 ± 5.4^{a}
| 43.5 ± 5.4 | 53.1 ± 9.1 | H_{(4)} = 21.53*** (0.44) | U = 10* (0.28) |

% PV with PNN | 6.6 ± 1.0 | 10.8 ± 2.4 | 32.2 ± 8.2^{a-b}
| 17.4 ± 2.0^{a}
| 10.8 ± 1.5 | 13.8 ± 2.9 | H_{(4)} = 20.04*** (0.40) | U = 6* (0.41) |

% PNN with PV | 58.3 ± 4.3 | 81.0 ± 4.4 | 89.3 ± 2.5^{a}
| 85.7 ± 1.8^{a}
| 75.2 ± 5.2 | 78.1 ± 10.6^{(a)}
| H_{(4)} = 18.94*** (0.37) | U = 13.5 (0.18) |

RA | ||||||||

PNN density (/mm²) | 37.1 ± 7.8 | 45.78 ± 7.7 | 58.8 ± 9.2 | 76.3 ± 6.5^{a}
| 66.0 ± 7.3 | 73.8 ± 6.6^{a}
| H_{(4)} = 13.85** (0.22) | U = 18 (0.08) |

PV density (/mm²) | 355 ± 30 | 545 ± 50^{(a)}
| 626 ± 70^{a}
| 288 ± 29^{b-c}
| 244 ± 12 | 361 ± 31^{(c)}
| H_{(4)} = 22.59*** (0.47) | U = 18 (0.08) |

PV+PNN density (/mm²) | 33.1 ± 7.2 | 43.6 ± 7.8 | 58.1 ± 8.9 | 69.7 ± 6.2^{(a)}
| 57.3 ± 5.3 | 70.5 ± 6.6^{a}
| H_{(4)} = 13.53** (0.22) | U = 15 (0.14) |

% PV with PNN | 10.6 ± 2.7 | 8.5 ± 1.6 | 10.7 ± 2.2 | 25.4 ± 2.9^{a-b}
| 24.0 ± 2.5 | 21.0 ± 3.2 | H_{(4)} = 17.27** (0.32) | U = 26.5 (0.00) |

% PNN with PV | 90.1 ± 3.9 | 94.6 ± 2.8 | 99.2 ± 0.8 | 91.5 ± 2.9 | 88.8 ± 4.1 | 95.8 ± 3.1 | H_{(4)} = 5.85 (0.00) | U = 24 (0.01) |

Area X | ||||||||

PNN density (/mm²) | 48.8 ± 8.0 | 42.1 ± 5.6 | 63.1 ± 12.5 | 82.9 ± 5.0^{(b)}
| 71.1 ± 12.6 | 83.8 ± 13.4 | H_{(4)} = 11.88* (0.17) | U = 20 (0.05) |

PV density (/mm²) | 355 ± 14 | 290 ± 8 | 244 ± 14^{a}
| 216 ± 14^{a-(b)}
| 198 ± 9 | 235 ± 15^{a}
| H_{(4)} = 25.49*** (0.56) | U = 22.5 (0.02) |

PV+PNN density (/mm²) | 35.4 ± 6.8 | 34.8 ± 4.1 | 44.3 ± 8.8 | 73.0 ± 4.4^{a-b}
| 58.8 ± 12.2 | 73.0 ± 13.7 | H_{(4)} = 15.44** (0.27) | U = 21 (0.04) |

% PV with PNN | 9.8 ± 1.7 | 12.1 ± 1.4 | 19.5 ± 4.5 | 34.4 ± 2.4^{a-b}
| 30.2 ± 6.1 | 31.4 ± 5.8^{a}
| H_{(4)} = 20.73*** (0.42) | U = 24 (0.01) |

% PNN with PV | 72.5 ± 6.1 | 84.7 ± 4.1 | 68.9 ± 4.5 | 88.6 ± 3.8^{(c)}
| 77.5 ± 7.5 | 83.4 ± 5.0 | H_{(4)} = 10.39* (0.13) | U = 19.5 (0.06) |

LMAN | ||||||||

PNN density (/mm²) | 38.9 ± 7.7 | 39.9 ± 10.1 | 53.0 ± 10.2 | 61.4 ± 11.5 | 55.9 ± 8.1 | 63.9 ± 15.5 | H_{(4)} = 3.97 (–0.06) | U = 25.5 (0.00) |

PV density (/mm²) | 338 ± 23 | 418 ± 29 | 490 ± 49 | 620 ± 42^{a}
| 718 ± 46 | 649 ± 37^{a}
| H_{(4)} = 23.86*** (0.51) | U = 17.5 (0.09) |

PV+PNN density (/mm²) | 19.2 ± 8.4 | 34.8 ± 9.1 | 47.9 ± 8.9 | 54.7 ± 9.8 | 50.8 ± 7.1 | 60.5 ± 15.4^{(a)}
| H_{(4)} = 10.76* (0.14) | U = 26.5 (0.00) |

% PV with PNN | 6.6 ± 3.5 | 9.1 ± 2.7 | 11.0 ± 2.7 | 8.74 ± 1.4 | 7.3 ± 1.2 | 9.7 ± 2.8 | H_{(4)} = 5.33 (–0.02) | U = 22.5 (0.02) |

% PNN with PV | 41.0 ± 14.0 | 87.4 ± 4.6 | 92.8 ± 4.0 | 91.1 ± 3.6 | 91.6 ± 2.8 | 91.5 ± 7.0 | H_{(4)} = 8.15 (0.06) | U = 26 (0.00) |

The table shows the mean ± SEM of the different measures. The last two columns present the statistical results of the Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA for the seasonal effect and the results of the Mann–Whitney tests of the effect of T during the winter. Results of significant

*post hoc*tests are labeled by the letters a, b, and c indicating a significant different by comparison with the 55 dph, summer, and autumn, respectively. Letters in parenthesis indicate a trend (0.05 <*p*<*p*<*p*<*p*<*p*<