Table 1

Identification of statistical tests used and parameters relevant to post hoc power analysis

DataTestPower (%)Effect sizeNoncentralityn
a'UnknownPaired t test90.280.706
b'UnknownPaired t test50.010.028
aNormalPaired t test700.792.7312
bUnknownPaired t test390.531.8512
cNormal1 sample t test60.070.2512
dUnknownWilcoxon rank912.113.574,12
eUnknownWilcoxon signed rank50.110.214
fUnknownWilcoxon rank90.390.654,12
GUnknownWilcoxon rank811.813.074,12
HUnknownWilcoxon rank60.270.353,4
IUnknownWilcoxon rank90.580.743,4
JUnknownWilcoxon rank50.0060.0073,4
KNormal1 sample t test1001.736.4714
MUnknownPaired t test1001.525.5614
NUnknownPaired t test150.271.014
PNormalPaired t test971.114.1414
QUnknownPaired t test60.070.2614
RUnknownPaired t test100.190.7114
SNormalPaired t test801.073.219
TUnknownPaired t test50.030.109
UUnknownPaired t test50.060.178
VUnknownPaired t test50.060.188
WUnknownPaired t test14.8610.865
XUnknownPaired t test481.132.525
YUnknownPaired t test10011.4828.116
ZUnknownPaired t test140.431.066
y'UnknownPaired t test1005.8214.276
z'UnknownPaired t test470.962.346
  • Data structure was tested for normality when parametric tests were applied using Kolmogorov–Smirnoff tests, but was of limited application here due to the modest sample sizes inherent in behavioral studies (<20 animals/group). In all cases, nonparametric tests yielded the same results. Effect size and measures of predicted noncentrality are also given to properly infer cases in which post hoc calculations of statistical power were weak. In most cases of weak power the effect sizes were medium to large (>0.35). In cases for which the effect size was very small (<0.10) the predicted noncentrality measures were also very low (<0.30), indicating that any potentially real differences between groups was minimal such that additional sampling within reasonable limits would be unlikely to result in statistical significance. It should be noted that only substantial changes in behavior were of interest in the current work. Post hoc power analysis was performed using G*Power (v3.1.9.2,